This project focuses on how artists reacted to the central questions of the political economy in these three paradigmatic cultures and national economies of the interwar years. How did they deal in the United States, for example, with the question: Can free markets advance people’s “pursuit of happiness” better than the state in the form of a controlled capitalism or state capitalism? Is the process of consistently economizing and rationalizing all areas of life—as well as the technical-industrial progress, the deregulation, and the global effects of an international market that makes all traditional bonds, regions, and localities disappear—compatible with a dignified life? Or are there alternatives? Can a rational, socialist planned economy overcome the negative consequences of capitalism? Does the world of machines demand a new type of human being or is a humanizing of work on machines conceivable? Alternative models for a state-guided economy were developed in the Soviet Union. In the German Empire and the United States, National Socialism and the New Deal both began simultaneously in March 1933. Roosevelt, however, only planned a temporary suspension of the global market policy, while Hitler aimed for a permanent policy of autarky.